Overall, immuno-oncology agents have the potential to transform cancer care and it is likely that they will become the backbone of cancer therapy in the future. The potential for cure, either on a functional level by turning cancer into a controllable chronic disease (similar to achievements with HIV drugs) or in the true eradication of the disease, may now be a prospect for large numbers of cancer patients116, 117. Much more work needs to be done to achieve this; however, the field is moving rapidly, the directions are reasonably clear and the outlook for cancer drug development has never been as good.